AbstractHydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of lawn grass was carried out at 200 °C and 240 °C for 30 to 180 min. The chemical, energetic, and structural characteristics of HTC solid residues were investigated. Results from HTC experiments indicate that solid mass yield of all solid residues was 31 to 50%. The hydrogen/carbon (H/C) and oxygen/carbon (O/C) atomic ratios of all solid residues were 1.17 to 1.64 and 0.45 to 0.65, respectively. The higher heating value (HHV) increased up to 20.54 MJ/kg with increasing HTC residence time at 240 °C for 180 min. Both XRD patterns and FTIR spectra show that differences occur with samples treated as compared to the raw material. Solid hydrochar exhibited higher ordered structure characteristics and was mainly derived from amorphous components degradation when the residence time was increased from 30 to 180 min at 200 °C, while hydrochar formed from cellulose components degradation with increased residence time at 240 °C. According to the results studied, it was found that prolonged residence time was favorable to the formation of hydrochar from lawn grass.