AbstractBamboo is a potential major bio-energy resource. Tests were carried out to compare and evaluate the property of bamboo and rice straw pellets, rice straw being the other main source of biomass solid fuel in China. All physical properties of untreated bamboo pellets (UBP), untreated rice straw pellets (URP), carbonized bamboo pellets (CBP), and carbonized rice straw pellets (CRP) met the requirements of Pellet Fuels Institute Standard Specification for Residential/Commercial Densified including dimension, density, and strength. The inorganic ash (15.94 %) and gross heat value (15375 J/g) of rice straw pellets could not meet the requirement of Pellet Fuels Institute Standard Specification for Residential/Commercial Densified (≤6.0% for PFI Utility) and the minimum requirement for making commercial pellets of DIN 51731 (>17500 J/g), respectively. Rice straw pellets have been a main type of biomass solid fuel and widely used. Bamboo pellets have better combustion properties compared with rice straw pellets. It is confirmed that bamboo pellets have great potential as biomass solid fuel, especially with respect to development of commercial pellets on an industrial scale in China. The information provided by this research is useful for development and utilization of bamboo resource and pellets.