The wood anatomy of four Atraphaxis taxa that have natural distribution in Turkey—Atraphaxis billardieri Jaub. & Spach, Atraphaxis billardieri subsp. tournefortii (Jaup. & Spach) Lovelius, Atraphaxis spinosa L., and endemic Atraphaxis grandiflora (Willd.)—were compared in this study. The wood samples were sectioned according to standard techniques. Samples were macerated with Schultze’s method. Tangential and radial vessel diameters, intervessel pit diameters, vessel wall thickness, vessel elements length, dimensions of libriform fibres (lengths, widths, cell wall thickness and, lumen diameter), and uniseriate and biseriate ray heights were measured, and the number of vessels per mm2, number of rays per mm, and number of vessels per group were counted. The qualitative features such as growth rings, vessel grouping, presence of helical thickening and storied structure, vestured pits, type of perforation plate, and arrangement of axial parenchyma were determined. These four species of Atraphaxis shrubs differ in some wood characteristics such as growth rings, vessel grouping, vestured pits, height and density of rays, number of vessels per mm2, and the dimensions of the vessel.