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Singh, S., Dutt, D., and Tyagi, C. H. (2011). "Complete characterization of wheat straw (Triticum aestivum PBW-343 L. Emend. Fiori & Paul.) - A renewable source of fibers for pulp and paper making," BioRes. 6(1), 154-177.


Triticum aestivum PBW-343 is grown in most of the regions of India, and it is one of the renewable sources most suitable for papermaking. Anatomical studies illustrate that vascular bundles near the periphery contain a strong sheath of sclerenchyma cells, which constitutes about 80% of the fibers. The total fibers in wheat straw are about 39.20%, and parenchyma and epidermal cells account for 32.10, and 23.56%, respectively, of the total cells. The dimensions of wheat straw fibers are: average fiber length 1.18 mm, fiber width 13.60 µm, lumen diameter 5.68 µm, and cell wall thickness 3.96 µm. The dimensions of non-fibrous cells are: parenchyma 445x124 µm, vessels 96x57 µm, and epidermal cells 390x38 µm, which lie between the corresponding values for rice straw, and bagasse. Flexibility coefficients and Runkel ratio of wheat straw fires are quite comparable to bamboo. The low lignin contents of wheat straw reflect that it requires mild cooking conditions; however, hemicelluloses are on higher side. Addition of AQ under optimum soda cooking conditions improves pulp yield by 0.75%, and lowers kappa number by 26.1%. Optimum strength properties are obtained at 45±1 oSR except tear index, which declines with increased refining. The fine contents are much higher, and relatively comparable to Eucalyptus tereticornis in terms of curl index and kinks per mm.
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