The rheological properties of the compression process of sweet sorghum straw were studied. The selected experimental factors comprised of the compression density, cutting length, compression speed, and moisture content, and specific energy consumption were selected as the evaluation index of the compression characteristics. The Box-Behnken test scheme was used to analyze the response surface test. The results showed that the selected compression model and specific energy consumption model of the sweet sorghum straw compression process were obtained. The primary factors contributing to energy consumption were the cutting length, moisture content, and compression density. The optimal parameters were as follows: a compression density of 500 kg/m3, a cutting length of 20 mm to 30 mm, a moisture content of 60.06%, and a specific energy consumption of 66 kJ/kg. The results provided methods for reducing the total energy consumption of the compression process and a theoretical basis for the compression and bundling of sweet sorghum.