AbstractThe influence of temperature on the compression strength (fc0) in the range of -196 ºC to +220 ºC, and compression modulus of elasticity (Ec0) parallel to the grain of oak (Quercus mongolica Fisch et Turcz.) wood in the range of -196 ºC to +23 ºC were studied. Five specimens were prepared for each temperature level. The specimens were kept at each temperature level for 30 min before a mechanical test was performed in an adjustable-temperature chamber. The results indicated that there were four different failure patterns, depending on the temperature range. When the temperature was decreased from +23 ºC to -196 ºC, the fc0 and Ec0 of wood increased by 283.91% and 146.30%, respectively. The relationships between fc0 and temperature and between Ec0 and temperature could be described by a linear and a polynomial model, respectively. Moreover, the Ec0 could be used to predict fc0 using a polynomial model. However, when the temperature was increased from +23 ºC to +220 ºC, the fc0 decreased by 67%, indicating a non-linear relationship.