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Ma, H., Zhou, B., Li, Y., and Argyropoulos, D. S. (2012). "Conversion of fructose to 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural with a functionalized ionic liquid," BioRes. 7(1), 533-544.

Abstract

Fructose can be efficiently converted to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by using the functionalized ionic liquid 3-(2-chloroethyl)-1-methylimidazolium chloride as both solvent and catalyst in the presence of water. This work advances the field and is distinct from earlier efforts in the sense that the observed yields of HMF from fructose are rather high and the reaction conditions rather mild and neutral in the complete absence of acidic additives (HMF yield 76% at 100 oC in 40 minutes).
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