NC State
Shahid, S. A., Ali, M., and Zafar, Z. I. (2015). "Cure kinetics, bonding performance, thermal degradation, and biocidal studies of phenol-formaldehyde resins modified with crude bio-oil prepared from Ziziphus mauritiana endocarps," BioRes. 10(1), 105-122.


Crude bio-oil, extracted from endocarp bio-waste of Ziziphus mauritiana by direct liquefaction (ethanol-water 1:1 w/w; 300 °C), was used to replace petro-phenol (30% to 75% w/w) in the development of bio-oil-phenol formaldehyde (BPF) resol resins. Cure kinetics of the BPF resins were studied by the DSC method, while the thermal degradation was studied by the TGA method. Bonding performance of the BPF resins was measured by single lap-shear method, while biocidal properties were investigated by antifungal index (%) and termite mortality (%) test. The DSC studies revealed that beyond 45% bio-oil incorporation (BOI), the curing process of the BPF resins got deferred. The TGA studies showed that BOI decreased the thermal stability of the BPF resins by lowering the decomposition temperatures and the char residue. The measured values of antifungal index (%) and termite mortality (%) revealed that incorporation of bio-oil enhanced the fungal and termite resistance of the resins. From data of thermal cure, bonding strength, thermal stability, and biocidal properties of the BPF resins it appears that petro-phenol could be substituted by up to 45% w/w of crude bio-oil safely in the development of bio-oil-phenol formaldehyde resol resins.
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