Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and a combined systems of NFC with cationic starch or cationic polyacrylamide were used in place of long-fiber chemical pulp in manufacturing currency paper from waste lint fibers from the textile industry. Handmade papers (60 g) were produced from each treatment, and the physical, mechanical, and optical characteristics of papers were compared. The results showed that increasing amounts of NFC by itself increased tensile strength, resistance to bursting, tearing, porosity, and opacity, and decreased the resistance to folding and brightness. Increasing NFC in combination with cationic starch reduced the need for chemical pulp, while improving porosity, opacity, and brightness and increased tensile strength, bursting strength, resistance to tearing, and folding in comparison to the use of long-fiber pulp. Increasing NFC in combination with cationic polyacrylamide, compared to long-fiber chemical pulp, increased opacity, tensile strength, and resistance to bursting and decreased the porosity, resistance to tearing, folding, and brightness. Field emission-scanning electron microscopy results showed that an enhanced percentage of NFC reduced porosity so that addition of 5% cellulosic nanofiber made the paper surface smoother and pores were relatively filled.