AbstractFour different extracts were obtained by extracting Cinnamomum camphora xylem with hot water, methanol, ethyl acetate, and chloroform. Thereafter, wood (Masson pine) was impregnated with these different extracts, and the decay resistance performance of the wood treated with the extracts was studied. The results showed that the mass loss of wood treated with 4% ammoniacal copper quats (ACQ), 4% boric acid, 4% camphor, and extracts made with 10% water, 10% methanol, 10% ethyl acetate, and 10% chloroform were 1.78%, 5.7%, 13.08%, 40.85%, 9.39%, 18.66%, and 21.45%, respectively. The samples impregnated with 4% ACQ, 4% boric acid or 10% methanol extract could meet the demand of degree I (LY/T 1283-2011) for preservation and showed strong resistance to fungal decay. The results from optical microscopy and SEM indicated that treated hyphae (methanol extracts) exhibited an obvious morphological change: the cell wall became rough, and the cell expanded, became twisted, and exhibited uneven growth of hyphae, indicating that the extracts affected the structure and function of the hyphae. The low number of hyphae present within the cell walls revealed that treatment with methanol extracts provided strong resistance to fungal decay.