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Cui, Y., Dong, X., Tong, J., and Liu, S. (2015). "Degradation of lignocellulosic components in un-pretreated vinegar residue using an artificially constructed fungal consortium," BioRes. 10(2), 3434-3450.


The objective of this work was to degrade lignocellulosic components in un-pretreated vinegar residue (VR) using a fungal consortium. Consortium-29, consisting of P. chrysosporium, T. koningii, A. niger, and A. ficuum NTG-23, was constructed using orthogonal design combined with two-way interaction analysis. After seven days of cultivation, the reducing sugar yield reached 35.57 mg per gram of dry substrate (gds-1), which was 108.01% higher than the control (17.10 mg gds-1). Additionally, the xylanase and CMCase activity reached 439.07 U gds-1 and 8.15 U gds-1, which were 432.08% and 243.88% higher than that of pure cultures of A. niger (82.52 U gds-1) and P. chrysosporium (2.37 U gds-1), respectively. The cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin contents decreased by 17.11%, 68.61%, and 14.44%, respectively, compared with that of the raw VR. The optimal fermentation conditions of consortium-29 were as follows: incubation temperature 25 °C, initial pH 6, initial moisture content 70%, inoculum size 1 ´ x 106 spores/mL, incubation time 5 days, urea/VR 1%, and MnSO4×H2O/VR 0.03%. This study suggests that consortium-29 is an efficient fungal consortium for un-pretreated VR degradation and has a potential application in lignocellulosic waste utilization with a low cost of operation.
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