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BioResources
Akbarpour, I., Ghaffari, M., and Ghasemian, A. (2013). "Deinking of different furnishes of recycled MOW, ONP, and OMG pulps in silicate-free conditions using organic complex of PHASS," BioRes. 8(1), 31-44.

Abstract

Sodium silicate causes problems in papermaking such as deposit formation, decreased retention, and lower sheet strength. Due to these problems, chemical deinking of different recycled papers furnishes including 100% ONP, 80% ONP, and 20% OMG, and a combination of 70% ONP/ 20% OMG/ 10% MOW was accomplished using an organic complexing agent which included poly-hydroxyl acrylic acid and sodium salt (PHAAS) in silicate-free conditions. PHAAS was utilized at four levels of 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 1% (based on oven-dry weight of recycled paper) rather than sodium silicate. The optical and physical properties of deinked pulp were compared to control pulp (conventional deinking containing 2% sodium silicate). The results showed that the paper brightness was improved and the yellowness, dirt count, and dirt area were decreased significantly by increasing PHAAS charge up to 0.9%. Also, in different recycled paper furnishes above mentioned, using different charges of PHAAS had different effects on paper opacity. Using different charges of PHAAS (especially 0.7 to 0.9%) decreased paper caliper, increased paper air resistance, increased freeness, and gave similar or slightly better paper tear indices. Differences of tear indices were not significant at confidence level of 99%. Based on the present research, the use of 0.7 to 0.9% PHAAS in place of sodium silicate is advisable because of the better quality of final papers compared to conventional deinking process.
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