NC State
Liu, Y., Zhang, Y., and Fang, Z. (2012). "Design, synthesis, and application of novel flame retardants derived from biomass," BioRes. 7(4), 4914-4925.


Biomass represents an abundant and relatively low cost carbon resource that can be utilized to produce platform chemicals such as levulinic acid. Novel oligomeric flame retardants, the poly(MDP-PDCP-MA)s (PMPMs), were designed and synthesized using diphenolic acid as one of the raw materials, which is derived from levulinic acid. To change the molar ratio of reactants, a series of PMPM samples with different nitrogen contents were obtained and characterized by FTIR and solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy. The solubility test and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated a good solvent-resistant property and thermal stability. The flame retardancy and thermal behavior of ABS with 30% loading of different PMPM samples were investigated by limiting oxygen index test (LOI), TGA, and microscale combustion colorimeter (MCC). The results showed that PMPMs are effective charring agents that can increase the thermal stability and flame retardancy of ABS. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations of the residue of ABS/PMPM blends indicated the compact charred layer formed was responsible for improving the thermal stability and char yield of ABS with low nitrogen content in PMPM-1 flame retardant.
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