AbstractThe dissolution of sugarcane bagasse cellulose (SBC) in zinc chloride solution was studied at elevated temperatures. Based on single factor experiments, the effects of zinc chloride mass fraction, dissolution time, temperature, and bagasse cellulose mass fraction were investigated by an orthogonal experiment, and the optimal dissolution conditions were obtained. The dissolution process of bagasse cellulose was observed under a microscope. Additionally, the original SBC and regenerated SBC were both characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Temperature was found to be the most important factor affecting dissolution time. The best dissolving process took place at 85 °C to dissolve 2% SBC in 85% zinc chloride for 210 min. It was shown that the zinc chloride was a direct solvent for SBC. After regeneration of cellulose in zinc chloride, the crystallinity of cellulose was decreased greatly, from 77% to 54%, its crystalline form was transformed from cellulose I to cellulose II, its thermal decomposition temperature was reduced, its thermal stability was slightly decreased, and its internal structure was disrupted.