An ionic liquid was used in this work to dissolve rice straw at 90 °C to explore the dissolution of cellulose, lignin, and hemicellulose in the straw at different treatment times. Compared with traditional methods, the method involved short time and high efficiency. The residual amounts of multiple substances were evaluated at different time periods. The results showed that the dissolution rate of triglyceride fats, water-soluble pectin, and lignin reached their maxima at 10 min, after which the dissolution rates decreased. Because lignin is wrapped as an outer layer surrounding cellulose and becomes dissolved in preference to hemicellulose and cellulose, cellulose and hemicellulose dissolve minimally at the beginning of the reaction, and the dissolution rate is slow. This study showed that there is a certain possibility for the direct utilization of ionic liquids for the treatment of straw biomass.