AbstractConsecutive superheated steam-alkali treatment was introduced to modify oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) prior to biocomposite fabrication. The biocomposite made up of 70 wt.% modified OPMF (SNOPMF) and 30 wt.% poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) was prepared by melt blending followed by compression molding. A silane coupling agent of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) was also incorporated into the SNOPMF/PBS biocomposite during the compounding process to impart better adhesion at the SNOPMF-PBS interface. The experimental results revealed that the tensile, flexural, and impact strengths were enhanced by 16, 30, and 15%, respectively, after the introduction of 2 wt.% APTMS to the SNOPMF/PBS biocomposite. Similarly, the resistance to water uptake and thickness swelling of this biocomposite was improved by 34 and 49%, respectively, relative to SNOPMF/PBS biocomposite. The SEM observation of the tensile fracture surface showed that APTMS improved the interfacial adhesion between SNOPMF and PBS. Based on the results, it can be deduced that APTMS could be a good coupling agent for improving the SNOPMF-PBS adhesion and, thereby, lead to a water resistant biocomposite of enhanced mechanical properties.