Stabilized fertilizers that contain nitrification inhibitors and/or urease inhibitors are widely used in China. A pot experiment was conducted to analyze soil enzymatic characteristics related to carbon and nitrogen turnover and metabolism under the use of rice straw and stabilized fertilizer. Results showed that stabilized fertilizer exhibited the highest yield production, panicle numbers, and above-ground biomass. Compared with urea treatment with straw, adding inhibitors reduced soil organic carbon and the enzyme activity related to acquisition of carbon, but increased soil organic carbon accumulation, rice yield, and above-ground biomass. Stabilized fertilizer increased protease activity; however, it decreased N-acetyl-β-glucosaminide. Addition of straw significantly increased dissolved organic and microbial biomass carbon or nitrogen, as well as the enzyme activities of α-D-glucosidase, β-D-glucosidase, β-N-acetyl-glucosidase, and cellulase at the seedling and tillering stages. The principal components analysis showed that the synthesis of extracellular enzyme related to carbon and nitrogen acquiring act as a proxy for straw decomposing under nitrogen conditions. The combination delayed the release of ammonia, which affected the carbon and nitrogen coupling by microbial organisms. These results demonstrated a relationship between soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics and soil enzymes in different fertilization management.