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BioResources
Panda, R., Tjong, J., Nayak, S. K., and Sain, M. M. (2015). "Effect of alkyl phenol from cashew nutshell liquid on mechanical and dry sliding wear behavior of epoxy resin," BioRes. 10(3), 4126-4136.

Abstract

A phenalkamine made from the reaction of alkyl phenol from cashew nutshell liquid (CSNL) and polyamine was added at three different weight percentages (30%, 40%, and 50%) as a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy hardener. This curing agent was compared to a traditional polyamine epoxy hardener. It was observed that an increase in phenalkamine concentration resulted in considerable improvement to impact strength and elongation, which ultimately translated to better wear resistance of the cured epoxy compound. Lancaster–Ratner correlations between mechanical and wear resistance properties were found to be linear. Optical microscope observations were used to understand the wear mechanisms of the cured epoxy materials.
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