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Liu, H.-M., Xie, X.-A., Feng, B., and Sun, R.-C. (2011). "Effect of catalysts on 5-lump distribution of constalk liquefaction in sub-critical ethanol," BioRes. 6(3), 2592-2604.

Abstract

Liquefaction of cornstalk in sub-critical solution of ethanol without and with catalysts (K2CO3, Na2CO3 and ZnCl2) was performed in a stainless steel reactor (1 L) at temperatures of 200 to 300 oC. The cornstalk and the products of decomposition were divided into five lumps (gas, organic dissolved, heavy oil, volatile organic compounds, and residue). The effects of reaction temperature and the catalyst amount on the five lump yields were studied. The bio-oils produced with and without catalysts were characterized by GC/MS. Results showed that an increment in the temperature and the addition of catalysts had a synergetic effect on the lumps yield as compared to the non-catalytic experiments, and different catalytic procedures had an important effect on the lump yields and compounds of the bio-oils. The addition of the catalyst enhanced the gas yield and the total conversion rate. A high temperature, lower amount of Na2CO3, moderate amount of K2CO3, and a high amount of ZnCl2 were propitious to enhance the heavy oil. The formation of volatile organic compounds with the presence of ZnCl2 and K2CO3 was less than that in non-catalytic experiments at the higher temperatures. However, a higher conversion temperature had a negative impact on the bio-oils yield from liquefaction of cornstalk with and without catalysts.
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