Effects of the plasma treatment were evaluated for particles from winter wheat stalks relative to the properties of particleboards manufactured from such treated particles. Using urea-formaldehyde adhesive, boards with a nominal density of 540 kg/m3 and a thickness of 6 mm were manufactured. Two degrees of plasma treatment were selected: cold plasma applied at atmospheric pressure by jet system, with a generator output voltage of 26.9 V and a current of 6.9 A; and in the second treatment, a maximum voltage of 28.6 V was used with a current of 8.7 A. The physical properties (equilibrium moisture content and thickness swelling depending on relative humidity) and mechanical properties (bending strength and tensile strength perpendicular to the plane of the board) were determined. The results showed that the plasma pre-treatment of particles had a statistically significant effect on the resulting composite properties. The mechanical properties of the boards increased with both plasma treatments, but the physical properties changed negatively. Boards manufactured from particles treated with a higher degree of plasma treatment resulted in significantly higher equilibrium moisture contents and thickness swelling than the reference boards.