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Todaro, L., Dichicco, P., Moretti, N., and D’Auria, M. (2013). "Effect of combined steam and heat treatments on extractives and lignin in sapwood and heartwood of turkey oak (Quercus cerris L.) wood," BioRes. 8(2), 1718-1730.

Abstract

Combined treatment with steam and heat was imposed on green Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L.) wood, both for sapwood and heartwood. Steaming was carried out in an autoclave at 100, 120, or 130 °C, and then a portion of the samples was heated in an oven for 2 h at 120 or 180 °C. Extraction with ethanol provided the greatest extractive contents in sapwood, and the extractive quantity decreased as the heating temperature was increased to 180 °C. In contrast, extraction with dichloromethane provided the greatest extractive content in heartwood, and no sizeable differences were found among the various treatments. Lignin amounts increased with rising treatment temperatures combined with steaming at 100 and 120 °C until the greatest value of 31.1% lignin content was reached. However, the lignin content decreased as the steaming temperatures rose to 130 °C. In all the combined treatments, the lignin content was greater in heartwood than in sapwood. Moreover, both steaming and heating applied individually produced no significant effect on lignin content.
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