AbstractThis study investigated the effects of various solvents on cypress liquefaction in the range of 180 to 300 °C. The solid residues and bio-oils obtained from cypress liquefaction were characterized to investigate the mechanism of the liquefaction process. Results obtained using FT-IR, sugar analysis, and elemental analysis showed that the solvent could affect both the formation of various compounds in the bio-oil and the product distribution during the cypress liquefaction process. Considering the bio-oil yield, the solvent efficiency in cypress liquefaction was as follows: water > methanol > ethanol. The decomposition velocities of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin were different in the solvents, and hemicellulose decomposition preceded cellulose and lignin in all solvents. Water had the most pronounced effect on the higher heating value (HHV) of residues among the three tested solvents; the highest HHV was 26.3 MJ/Kg. This study suggests that characterization of products provides a promising approach for investigating the mechanism of solvent effects on biomass liquefaction.