AbstractCarboxylation of cotton linters was investigated relative to its use in ion exchange. The effects of different treatments of cotton linters, such as alkali, acid, and activating agents, e.g. LiCl, on the molecular structure and carboxylation of cotton linters were taken in our consideration. The absence or presence of a crosslinking was considered, and the efficiency of these prepared carboxylated cotton linters toward metal ions uptake, as well as thermal analysis of treated and carboxylated cotton linters, was investigated. It was found that treatment of cotton linters with alkali and activating agent decreased the crystallinity index (band intensity at 1425/band intensity at 890 cm-1). On the other hand, the prepared carboxylated cotton linters had lower crystallinity index than uncarboxylated linters. Thermal analysis of the treated and carboxylated cotton linters allowed calculation of the activation energy of thermally treated materials. It was found that the crosslinked and acid treated cotton linters had a higher activation.