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Ismail, H., Khoon, T. B., Hayeemasae, N., and Husseinsyah, S. (2015). "Effect of oil palm ash on the properties of polypropylene/recycled natural rubber gloves/oil palm ash composites," BioRes. 10(1), 1495-1505.

Abstract

In the present study, polypropylene, recycled natural rubber gloves, and oil palm ash composites (PP/rNRg/OPA) were prepared using an internal mixer. The effects that OPA loading had on the processability, tensile properties, morphology, and thermal stability of the PP/rNRg/OPA composites were investigated. The stabilization torque, tensile modulus, and thermal stability all increased; however, the elongation at break decreased as the OPA loading increased. The tensile strength increased to a maximum of 4 parts per hundred rubber (phr) OPA loading, and subsequently decreased. At 4 phr OPA, the filler was well-dispersed and had a good interaction with the matrix, whereas the agglomeration and detachment of OPA was observed at high loading rates of OPA in the PP/rNRg/OPA composite. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that the thermal stability of the composite increased as the OPA loading increased. Further evidence for the increased thermal stability can be found when analyzing the decomposition temperatures at different stages and maximum weight loss, where higher decomposition temperatures corresponded to composites with higher OPA loadings.
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