NC State
Colodette, J. L., Gomide, J. L., Júnior, D. L., and Pedrazzi, C. (2007). "Effect of pulp delignification degree on fiber line performance and bleaching effluent load," BioRes. 2(2), 223-234.


Industrially made kraft pulps obtained by a modified cooking process may contain 60-75 mmol/kg of hexenuronic acids (HexAs), which represents 6-7.5 kappa units. HexAs do not react with oxygen and very little of it is actually removed across the oxygen delignification stage, causing low efficiencies in the range of 25-35%. In this study, an economical evaluation of the ECF bleaching processes was carried out, having none and double-stage oxygen delignification, when applied to eucalyptus pulps of kappa varying in the range of 14-21. The bleaching processes included sequences containing specific stages for HexAs removal (Z, A/D and DHT). Results indicated that the use of oxygen delignification was not economically attractive, particularly for HexA-rich low-kappa pulps, but processes without oxygen delignification present significant environmental challenges.
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