Recent literature relating to the structure of paper and its load/ elongation behaviour is reviewed.
Following an outline of the more important load/elongation features and the effects on them of testing conditions and sheet variables, paper structure is considered in terms of the fibre (its strength, conformability and response to drying tension), the interfibre bond (its structure, area, frequency, strength and energy) and the sheet geometry. The structural changes that occur in the sheet as a whole and in its various elements during elongation and rupture are also described.
Theories relating mechanical properties to sheet structure are summarised in three categories-general theories, quantitative theories for the prediction of sheet elasticity and the application of the Griffith crack theory to paper. Some concluding remarks are offered about the significance, particularly in sheet elasticity theories, of the ability of a paper to distribute load evenly over all its structural elements.