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BioResources
Liu, J., Yang, R., and Yang, F. (2015). "Effect of the starch source on the performance of cationic starches having similar degree of substitution for papermaking using deinked pulp," BioRes. 10(1), 922-931.

Abstract

Cationic waxy corn starch was prepared from waxy corn starch with 2,3-epoxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (ETMAC) as a cationic etherifying reagent. Its structure was identified by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The results showed that quaternary ammonium groups were introduced successfully into the waxy corn starch, and the cationic reaction occurred on the surface of the starch granules. Cationic waxy corn starch was then applied into deinked pulp as a paper reinforcer, and the result was compared with that of cationic tapioca starch and cationic maize starch. In general, the physical strengths of the paper were improved significantly with an increasing dosage of cationic starches. Cationic waxy corn starch was superior in terms of enhancing the physical properties of paper. In addition, with the use of cationic waxy corn starch, anionic trash in the slurry could be better removed.
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