AbstractThe purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of white mud (WM) on mechanical and thermal properties of bamboo plastic composites (BPCs). Bamboo residue fibers (BRFs) and WM were added as the reinforcement, and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) served as the matrix. The lubricating agent and coupling agent were polyethylene wax and maleated polyethylene (MAPE), respectively. The mixture was used to manufacture BPCs using a twin-screw extruder. The crystal structure and thermal properties of BPCs were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that the particle size of the WM was 700 nm to 50 μm, which are made mainly of calcium carbonate. BPCs with WM significantly increased the flexural and tensile properties, but the impact strength decreased because of the presence of WM. The flexural and tensile strength of composites with 18 wt% BPF were increased by 36.81% and 6.26%, respectively, while the flexural and tensile modulus were increased by 164.29% and 64.33%, respectively. XRD demonstrated the WM had little effect on the crystal structure of BPCs. Compared to BPCs without WM, the T5% of composites with 22 wt% WM decreased by 27.9 °C. As the WM content increased, the crystallinity of the BPCs decreased initially, then increased with increasing WM content.