AbstractDilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis was performed before the isolation of cellulose from Eulaliopsis binata. And then, the effects of dilute acid hydrolysis on composition and structure of the cellulose was studied in detail. The results indicated that hemicellulose was dissolved mostly and that the lignin-hemicellulose-cellulose interactions were also partially disrupted during the dilute acid hydrolysis. Cellulose in Eulaliopsis binata was identified as the cellulose I allomorph with low crystallinity. What’s more, hydrolysis with dilute acid at high temperature increased the degree of cellulose crystallinity and relatively reduced the proportions of less ordered cellulose allomorphs. This was attributed to a preferential degradation of amorphous cellulose and less ordered crystalline forms during the hydrolysis. The cellulose preparation from Eulaliopsis binata after dilute acid hydrolysis had a higher thermal stability than the cellulose preparation from untreated Eulaliopsis binata.