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Fan, L., Ruan, R., Liu, Y., Wang, Y., and Tu, C. (2015). "Effects of extraction conditions on the characteristics of ethanol organosolv lignin from bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel)," BioRes. 10(4), 7998-8013.

Abstract

The structure and properties of ethanol organosolv lignin (EOL) extracted from bamboo under various conditions were characterized. EOL yield increased at high temperatures of 160 to 200 °C and a reaction time of 1 to 3 h. The nitrogen content in lignin was low, with a maximum of 0.62%. The carbon content increased with increasing temperature and prolonged time, whereas oxygen content showed an inverse trend. EOL extracted from bamboo showed high purity levels (more than 95.5% Klason lignin) with low impurity contents (carbohydrate and ash). The severity of the process increased the carboxylic acid and phenolic hydroxyl group contents and also decreased the methoxyl group content. The molecular weight of EOL varied depending on the extraction condition. The FT-IR and NMR spectra revealed that the main structure did not significantly change. From the spectra, it is clear that EOL extracted from bamboo can be classified as an HGS (H--p-hydroxyphenyl, G--guaiacyl, and S--syringyl, respectively) type. Clear β-O-4, β-β, and β-5’ linkages were observed.
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