AbstractIt is possible to improve cellulase production by controlling fungal morphology. Farnesol, the first quorum-sensing molecule found in eukaryotic organisms, is reported to influence the morphology of fungi. In this work, farnesol was investigated for its effect on morphology and cellulase production of Penicillium decumbens. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that farnesol promoted the growth of hyphae, making possible and facilitating a higher yield of cellulase secretion. Enhanced interaction with the substrate in fermentation led to greater cellulase production. These findings are associated with the subsequent cellulase production of the fungus. Compared with a control medium, exogenously added 1 mM farnesol resulted in 1.32-fold increase in maximal filter paper activity with no significant change in the activity per unit of protein. These results provide a novel way to improve the cellulase production, promoting the commercial application of cellulase.