AbstractStructural and chemical changes were investigated in Hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) chips that had been exposed to Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-1767 fungus. Samples subjected to fungal treatments for durations of 1, 2, and 4 weeks were investigated and compared with a control sample not subjected to fungal treatment. Results of scanning electron microscopy indicated that fungal hyphae were present on the surfaces of all chips exposed to the fungus. In the samples treated for a 2 or 4-week period, these hyphae additionally penetrated into vessels and lumens through ray cells, softening and destroying the cell walls. FT-IR spectra indicated that fungal treatment modified the chemical structure of the wood. Furthermore, there was a remarkable decrease in the amount of lignin in woods exposed to fungus. Lignin decreases after 1, 2, and 4 weeks of treatment were 2.83%, 11.4%, and 18.56%, respectively. Measurement of fiber dimensions indicated that cell wall thicknesses decreased after treatment, but that the lumen width increased compared with the control sample.