AbstractLarix spp., a wood species of low dimensional stability, was heat-treated in nitrogen at 180 to 210 °C for 6 h. Changes in the thermal decomposition and combustion behaviors of the wood after heat treatment were investigated by TGA, SEM, FTIR, and cone calorimetry. TGA confirmed the loss of hemicellulose from heat-treated Larix spp. Small cracks in the cell wall and loss of resin from the vessels of heat-treated wood were observed by SEM. Hemicellulose degradation within the heat-treated samples was indicated by decreased intensities of typical O-H and C=O stretching vibration peaks in the FTIR spectra. The HRR and MLR curves of treated wood were much lower than those of the untreated ones, which is preferable for fire safety. However, the time to ignition of treated samples decreased from 22 to 13 s and the total smoke production increased by 4.76 and 43.3% for 180- and 210 °C-treated samples, respectively, a detrimental effect on fire safety. To determine the influence of heat treatment on the combustion behaviorof Larix spp., the fire safety properties of heat-treated wood (such as wood structure building, furniture, and floors) must be studied further.