AbstractTo improve the interfacial compatibility between bamboo powder and polypropylene (PP), the effects of maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene (MAPP) on the physico-mechanical properties and rheological behavior of 33 wt% bamboo powder/PP foamed composites were investigated. The results showed that the mechanical properties, water resistance, and surface wettability of MAPP-treated composites improved significantly, and the optimum content of MAPP was 9%. The density of 9% MAPP-treated composite was 0.845 g/cm3 and its specific bending and tensile and notched impact strengths increased by 22.9%, 29.6%, and 49.0%, respectively, and the water absorption decreased from 8.80% to 1.92%, compared to the untreated composite. The frequency sweep results indicated that both the modulus and complex viscosity of the 9% MAPP-treated composite reached minimum values, and the slope of the lgG'-lgf curve for the treated composite increased by 15.9% compared with that of the untreated analogue. ESEM results indicated that the MAPP-treated composite had better bamboo powder dispersion and better interfacial compatibility. FTIR and XPS analyses confirmed the esterification between anhydride groups of MAPP and hydroxyl groups of bamboo powder. XRD studies showed the degree of crystallinity for the MAPP-treated composite increased to 26.52%, compared to 21.05% for the untreated composite.