Bagasse was pretreated by pectinase, and both the control and pretreated bagasse were subjected to soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulping. There were significant improvements in pulp properties after pectinase treatment, such as relative increases of brightness (5.5%), breaking length (17.1%), burst factor (16.5%), and tear factor (7.0%). The samples were analyzed by a fiber analyzer, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The pectinase treatment changed the material properties, which would improve the efficiency of subsequent pulping, such as increasing the fiber length (20.0%), lowering the fines length (10.6%), and increasing the percentage of flexible fiber. Pectinase treatment removed some non-cellulose components; in particular, the pectin and alcohol-benzene extractives were decreased by 19.4% and 37.3% after enzymatic treatment. The hemicellulose and lignin were decreased by 5.5% and 1.9%, respectively. A bulkier and more collapsed fiber surface was observed in the treated fibers, which suggested greater pore volume and more accessible surface area. Treatment caused a slight incline by 4.8% in the crystallinity index. Some chemical structures in pectin, hemicellulose, and lignin were partly broken, showing the effect of pectinase treatment on the degradation of non-cellulose components. Pectinase treatment prior to pulping is therefore recommended, given its efficiency and eco-friendly nature.