NC State
Ekhtera, M. H., Rezayati Charani, P., Ramezani, O., and Azadfallah, M. (2008). "Effects of poly-aluminum chloride, starch, alum, and rosin on the rosin sizing, strength, and microscopic appearance of paper prepared from old corrugated container (OCC) pulp," BioRes. 3(2), 383-402.


The influence of rosin (0.1-0.3%), alum (0.4-0.6%), polyaluminum chloride (0.3-0.7%), and starch (0.5-1.5%) in the making of paper from old corrugated container (OCC) pulp on the freeness, breaking length, tear index, and burst index of pulp and paper sheets was studied. Using a full factorial design to identify the optimum operating conditions, equations relating the dependent variables to the operational variables of the chemical additives were derived that reproduced the former with errors lower than 5%. Using a high starch (1.5%), high PAC (0.7%), low alum (0.4%), and low rosin (0.1%) combination led to pulp that was sufficient to obtain paper with good strength properties (breaking length 5720m; burst index: 3.1 kPam2g-1; tear index: 6.2mNm2/g; Cobb test: 94; fold endurance: 1.52). SEM analysis showed increasing bonding between fibers together at this level of additives. The influence of starch on Cobb test values was not significant.
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