Poplar and pine wood were extracted with water, 1% NaOH (wt%) solution, and benzene:ethanol solution (V1 : V2, 2 : 1) to investigate the governing factors and mechanism by which extractives affect wood structure and mechanical properties. The structure, pore distribution, crystal structure, and mechanical properties of samples were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), adsorption of N2 gas, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and mechanical testing, respectively. The results demonstrated that cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin were degraded to some extent in the course of the dissolution of the extractives. This degradation had a great influence on the structure and quantity of pores. The extraction treatment did not change the crystallization type of the wood, but it increased the crystallinity of the wood, and the length and width of the crystallization area changed. In addition, the mechanical properties of wood were changed when the content of the extractives was reduced.