AbstractTo illustrate the effects of nano-bamboo charcoal (NBC) on the properties of bamboo plastic composites (BPC), nano-bamboo charcoal-bamboo plastic composites (NBC-BPC) were prepared at 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, and 12.5% (w/v) NBC and characterized. The effects of NBC on the water absorption, fractured surfaces, mechanical properties, and thermal properties of the composites were investigated. NBC had strong interfacial interaction in the BPC, which greatly improved the interfacial adhesion of bamboo flour (BF) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The water resistance, flexural strengths, and tensile strengths of the composites were enhanced compared with traditional BPC when the volume of NBC reached a specific loading. These results demonstrated that the incorporation of NBC slightly improved the thermal properties of the synthesized composites.