AbstractBamboo is a very interesting bio resource for building materials because of its combination of strength properties and low density. However, its susceptibility to fungi and insects is problematic. Thermal modification is used in Vietnam to improve the durability and dimensional stability of bamboo. Changes in the chemical composition during this modification are the reason for such physical changes as color, equilibrium moisture content, and strength. This paper will describe the changes in the chemical composition depending on the modification conditions. Furthermore correlations between chemical composition and physical properties, which are presented in Part I, are shown.