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Pelit, H., Sönmez, A., and Budakçı, M. (2015). "Effects of thermomechanical densification and heat treatment on density and Brinell hardness of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Eastern beech (Fagus orientalis L.)," BioRes. 10(2), 3097-3111.

Abstract

The effects of thermomechanical densification (TMD) and heat treatment on density and Brinell hardness of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Eastern beech (Fagus orientalis L.) woods were investigated. Samples were densified using a specially designed hydraulic press with target compression ratios of 20 and 40%, and at 110 °C and 150 °C. Then, the heat treatment was applied to the samples at three different temperatures. To determine whether the changes occurred because of technological properties, tests of Brinell hardness and air-dry density were conducted. Increases of 42 and 35% were obtained for the density of Scots pine and beech samples, respectively. After the densification process, increases in radial and tangential hardness values were obtained. Decreases were observed in the density and hardness values of the samples because of the increase in temperature during heat treatment. After heat treatment, there were 4 and 5% decreases in the respective densities of Scots pine and beech, and decreases in their radial and tangential hardness values.
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