NC State
Salem, M. Z. M., Ali, H. M., and Basalah, M. O. (2014). "Essential oils from wood, bark, and needles of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. from Alexandria, Egypt: Antibacterial and antioxidant activities," BioRes. 9(4), 7454-7466.


The essential oils extracted by hydro-distillation of Pinus roxburghii wood, bark, and needles were analyzed by GC/MS, and their antibacterial and antioxidant activities were evaluated. Twenty-two, thirty-one, and twenty-eight compounds were identified in the essential oils of wood, bark, and needles, respectively. The major chemical constituents of wood’s essential oil were caryophyllene (16.75%), thunbergol (16.29%), 3-carene (14.95%), cembrene (12.08%), α-thujene (10.81%), and terpinolen (7.17%). In bark, they were α-pinene (31.29%) and 3-carene (28.05%), and in needles, they were α-pinene (39%) and 3-carene (33.37%). Almost all of the essential oils were active against human pathogen bacteria, and the essential oils from bark and needles were active against the plant pathogen bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum and Pectobacterium carotovorum. Alternatively, Erwinia amylovora was resistant to all tested oils. The total antioxidant activities (TAA%) of the essential oils from wood (82 ± 2.12%), and bark (85 ± 1.24%) were higher than that of tannic acid (81 ± 1.02%), and the TAA% from the essential oil of needles (50 ± 2.24%) was lower than that of tannic acid.
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