NC State
Hassan, K. T. S., Horáček, P., and Tippner, J. (2013). "Evaluation of stiffness and strength of Scots pine wood using resonance frequency and ultrasonic techniques," BioRes. 8(2), 1634-1645.


The aim of this paper was to predict the static bending modulus of elasticity (MOES) and modulus of rupture (MOR) of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood using three nondestructive techniques. The mean values of the dynamic modulus of elasticity based on flexural vibration (MOEF), longitudinal vibration (MOELV), and indirect ultrasonic (MOEUS) were 13.8, 22.3, and 30.9 % higher than the static modulus of elasticity (MOE S ), respectively. The reduction of this difference, taking into account the shear deflection effect in the output values for static bending modulus of elasticity, was also discussed in this study. The three dynamic moduli of elasticity correlated well with the static MOE S and MOR; correlation coefficients ranged between 0.68 and 0.96. The correlation coefficients between the dynamic moduli and MOE S were higher than those between the dynamic moduli and MOR. The highest correlation between the dynamic moduli and static bending properties was obtained by the flexural vibration technique in comparison with longitudinal vibration and indirect ultrasonic techniques. Results showed that there was no obvious relationship between the density and the acoustic wave velocity that was obtained from the longitudinal vibration and ultrasonic techniques.
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