The association between natural mold resistance and the wood’s chemical components was studied for nine wood species. The mold resistance of the different wood species was tested by artificially accelerated tests and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chemical components were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results indicated that the sequence of mold resistance of different wood flours was as follows, from greatest to least resistance: spruce, Mongolian pine and camphor, toon and teak, eucalyptus (E. urophylla and E. grandis × E. urophylla), sweetgum, and castor straw fiber. GC-MS analysis indicated that the total contents of the antifungal compounds present in all wood flour extractives were consistent with the sequence of mold resistance of wood flour. This suggested that the natural durability of wood flour against molds was affected by its chemical components.