NC State
Sulaiman, N. S., Hashim, R., Mohamad Amini, M. H., Sulaiman, O., and Hiziroglu, S. (2013). "Evaluation of the properties of particleboard made using oil palm starch modified with epichlorohydrin," BioRes. 8(1), 283-301.


The objective of this study was to investigate the physical properties, including density, moisture content, thickness swelling, and water absorption, in addition to the mechanical properties such as modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, and internal bond strength of experimental panels that were made from rubberwood particles using oil palm starch modified with epichlorohydrin as a binder. The samples were also examined using X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. The panel properties were compared with the properties of panels manufactured using native oil palm starch. The properties of starch and starch adhesives were also investigated. The panels were produced based on 0.60 g/cm3 and 0.80 g/cm3 target densities and two press times of 15 and 20 min. The results showed that the 0.80 g/cm3 panels manufactured using modified oil palm starch and with 15 min of press time had better properties than did the others. However, a lower thickness swelling value was found for panels with density 0.60 g/cm3 and with 15 min of press time. Based on the results in this study, it can be concluded that the use of oil palm starch modified with epichlorohydrin as a binder has the potential to be used as a green adhesive in commercial applications.
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