A fluorinated poly-acrylate emulsion with various fluorine contents was prepared by a seeded semi-continuous emulsion polymerization method and applied to filter paper for oil-water separation applications. The effects of surface wetting behavior on the oil-water separation efficiency of the prepared filter paper were studied. The results show that the prepared highly hydrophobic and superoleophilic filter paper presented 94.45 wt% water separation efficiency and strong mechanical strength. In addition, the oil-water separation stability and durability of the filter paper were also tested and shown to be suitable for use in real oil-water separation applications. These properties indicate that the filter paper has great potential applications in the oil-water separation industry.