AbstractTo investigate the influence of pH on the size and distribution of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) as well as the antibacterial activity and catalytic performance of rice straw/silver nanocomposites (RS/Ag-NCs), Ag-NPs were synthesized on the surface of rice straw (RS) with various percentages of Ag-NPs (1.0, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 wt.%) under different temperatures and diverse pH values. The ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy of synthesized RS/Ag-NCs became noticeable with increased pH, and the peaks were blue-shifted to lower wavelengths. X-ray powder diffraction (PXRD) demonstrated the presence of pure Ag-NPs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the diameters of Ag-NPs on RS were between 7.78 and 2.84 nm at pH values of 8 to 10. The antibacterial activity of various sizes of Ag-NPs on RS was examined using Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) based on the well diffusion technique. Higher antibacterial activity was detected as the loading percentage of RS/Ag-NCs increased and particle size decreased. The superior catalytic performance of 20.0 wt.% RS/Ag-NCs was considered in a test reaction in 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) reduction in the presence of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) in an eco-friendly solvent at ambient temperature. The results represented the high-performance catalytic activity of 20.0 wt.% RS/Ag-NCs.