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Li, H., Fu, S., and Peng, L. (2013). "Fiber modification of unbleached kraft pulp with laccase in the presence of ferulic acid," BioRes. 8(4), 5794-5806.


Unbleached kraft pulp fibers were modified with laccase and ferulic acid (FRC) to improve their physical strength properties in paper products. The optimal conditions of laccase-FRC modification were examined in terms of the physical properties of pulps. The effects of laccase-FRC modification on the carboxyl group content and surface lignin content of pulps were investigated. The surface morphologies of laccase-FRC-modified pulp fibers were observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The carboxyl group and surface lignin contents for laccase-FRC-modified pulps increased compared to the control pulp. AFM phase images showed that the laccase-FRC-modified fiber surfaces were covered with large granular substances from the products of FRC grafting and lignin polymerization/condensation reactions. The observed
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