NC State
BioResources
Hubbe, M. A., and Gill, R. A. (2016). "Fillers for papermaking: A review of their properties, usage practices, and their mechanistic role," BioRes. 11(1), 2886-2963.

Abstract

Issues of cost and product quality have caused papermakers to place increased attention on the use of mineral additives, which are the subject of this review article. Technologists responsible for the production of paper can choose from a broad range of natural and synthetic mineral products, each of which has different characteristic shapes, size distributions, and surface chemical behavior. This article considers methods of characterization, and then discusses the distinguishing features of widely available filler products. The mechanisms by which fillers affect different paper properties is reviewed, as well as procedures for handling fillers in the paper mill and retaining them in the paper. Optical properties of paper and strategies to maintain paper strength at higher filler levels are considered. The goal of this review is to provide background both for engineers working to make their paper products more competitive and for researchers aiming to achieve effects beyond the current state of the art.
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