NC State
Mikkonen, K. S., Yadav, M. P., Cooke, P., Willför, S., Hicks, K. B., and Tenkanen, M. (2008). "Films from spruce galactogluccomannan blended with poly(vinyl alcohol), corn arabonoxylan, and konjac glucomannan," BioRes. 3(1), 178-191.


The improvement of mechanical properties of spruce galactogluco-mannan (GGM)-based films was sought by blending GGM with each of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH), corn arabinoxylan (cAX), and konjac glucomannan (KGM). The blend ratios were 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3 (w/w), and in addition films were made from each of the polymers alone. Glycerol was used as plasticizer. Adding other polymers increased the elongation at break of GGM blend films. The tensile strength of films increased with increasing amount of PVOH and KGM, but the effect of cAX was the opposite. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed two separate loss modulus peaks for blends of GGM and PVOH, but a single peak for all other films. Optical and scanning electron microscopy confirmed good miscibility of GGM with cAX and KGM. In contrast, films blended from GGM and PVOH showed phase separation when examined by microscopy.
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