AbstractFiberboard is a common interior material used both in China and the United States of America. The increase in demand for interior materials has raised concerns regarding combustibility of the materials. The pyrolysis characteristics of fiber, phenolic resin (PF), and nano kaolin-clay (NK) were investigated using thermogravimetry. The fire performances of samples coated with a mixture of NK and PF were determined using a cone calorimeter. The pyrolysis process of fiber included three phases dependent on chemical composition. The initial temperature of PF pyrolysis was about 100 °C and it stopped at 280°C. The major mass loss of NK was observed between 400 to 600 °C due to the gradual oxolation of the metakaolin. In comparison with fiber board, samples coated with a mixture of NK and PF achieved a better fire performance. The results showed a longer TTI, lower HRR, and THR, and less CO and CO2 yield, especially from a mixture of NK (90%) and PF (10%). The application of an NK and PF mixture to fiber board as a flame retardant is an effective method for enhancing fire safety and resistance.